International Journal of Cyber Diplomacy / 2022, Volume 3

Shifting from Kinetic to Cyber: A Cyber Diplomacy Literature Review

Solana Beatriz AQUINO


The realm of cyber diplomacy is the new frontier of power relations and requires an evolution of our previous understanding of power dynamics in the international sphere. From the birth of cyber diplomacy in 2007, there have been attempts to create cyber diplomatic policies. However, the current literature has found unrealistic cybersecurity expectations for states and some with aggressive stances. We use a literature review to comb through various states’ cyber stances, review their cyber readiness, and evaluate the neorealism principles underlying these moves. The United States and Russia are the current great cyber powers with North Korea, Singapore, Estonia, South Korea, Israel, and Iran catching up with their cyber policies. There is still a gap in the literature about the place of multinational companies that hold a large sway on cyberspace and more on the neorealist underpinnings of this new space.

Cyber diplomacy, Cyberspace, Cybersecurity, Literature review, Neorealism

Full text:

Solana Beatriz AQUINO, "Shifting from Kinetic to Cyber: A Cyber Diplomacy Literature Review", International Journal of Cyber Diplomacy, ISSN 2668-8662, vol. 3, pp. 3-11, 2022.