• Title page (containing the title of the manuscript, the author’s contact information and a short autobiography with a color photo for each author)
  • Title
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Body of the manuscript
  • Tables, figures, etc. placed where they belong
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments (if any)
  • References (Harvard style)
  • Bibliography (if any)
  • Appendices (if any)

Title Page

The title page should include the manuscript title and each author’s name, affiliation, mailing address, and email address with the corresponding author indicated. Also, the title page should contain a color portrait type photo plus a short autobiography (a paragraph of 10 lines or less) for each author.


The title should be concise, descriptive, and should contain keywords or key phrases.
The editors assume that the title contains all of the important words that describe the topic of the manuscript.


The use of acronyms should be avoided in the title and keywords unless widely recognized and understood.


Abstracts should not exceed 100 words. The abstract should contain all the keywords and key phrases.
You may know that the searching engines rank manuscripts higher if the keyword or key phrase being searched appears more often in the abstract. However, useless repetition may result in the page being rejected by a search engine. Since most researchers read an abstract before reading the entire manuscript, abstracts must be very well-written.


Select at least 5 (five) keywords that you would give a search engine if you were searching for your manuscript. Avoid the use of general and plural terms, abbreviations, and non-descriptive words such as “and”, “of”, “or”, “the”, and so on.

Tables & Figures

  • Use the Microsoft Word table function to create tables, not spreadsheets.
  • Tables and figures should be located in the text and numbered sequentially using Arabic numerals, i.e., Table 1 and Figure 1.
  • All tables and figures must be indicated in the text of a paper and must include a caption; table captions should be positioned above the tables but figure captions should be positioned below the figures.
  • International Journal of Cyber Diplomacy is printed in full-color, so please take this into consideration when elaborating tables and figures.


Footnotes (at the bottom of each page) are preferred to endnotes (at the end of the manuscript).


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.


References should be alphabetically organized according to Harvard style (see, for example Imperial College London ‒ Harvard Style Guide). References should not be inserted as footnotes!

The references from the reference list are not numbered and should be arranged in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names.

If no individual author or editor is named, use the corporate author. If you are unable to find either a named or a corporate author, use ‘Anon’ as the author’s name.

The first line of the reference list entry should be left-hand justified, while all ensuing lines should be consistently indented.

Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a source.

If there is more than one work by the same author, arrange them by publication date – oldest to most recent (e.g.: a 2005 publication should appear before a 2009 publication).

Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there is one, plus any proper names – i.e., only those words that would normally be capitalised.

Italicise the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial and the title of the web document.

Do not create separate lists for each type of information source. Books, articles, web documents, brochures, etc. are all alphabetically organized in the same numbered list.

There are two main sections for Referencing:

  • The first part indicating within your assignment the sources of the information you have used to write your assignment. This supports your ideas, arguments and views. Sometimes the sources from this part are referred to as: citations in the text, text citations or in-text citations.
  • The second part to referencing is the creation of a reference list. The reference list shows the details of everything you cited and appears as an alphabetical list on a separate page, at the end of the paper.